Publications

### Research Papers

**Predicting Planned Pooling Patterns**, Laura Taalman and students Barb, Birch, Gonzalez, Jones, Makela, McClennan, and Wiermanski; *Proceedings of Bridges Richmond: Mathematics, Art, Music, Architecture, Culture,* to appear 2024.

## Abstract

We mathematically analyze the striking visual effect known as planned pooling that arises in knit and crochet patterns when working back and forth with variegated yarn dyed at consistent intervals. Our main result identifies three desirable planned pooling pattern families and provides formulas for choosing row lengths to obtain those patterns.

**Knit Knots: Large-Scale Soft Conformations of Minimum-Ropelength Knots and Links**, Laura Taalman; *Proceedings of Bridges Halifax: Mathematics, Art, Music, Architecture, Culture,* p. 369–372, 2023. **PDF**

## Abstract

In this paper we present a method for constructing large, stuffed, machine-knit models of knots and links. Our approach is based on the minimum ropelength of knots, a measure of the minimum amount of rope needed to tie a given knot. We combine known mathematical bounds for minimum ropelength with physical measurements and knit gauge to determine appropriate row counts for creating large-scale stuffed models of particular knots and links on a flatbed knitting machine. The resulting soft sculptures invite tactile, playful exploration of knotted and linked mathematical forms, and are surprisingly huggable.

**Ideal Spatial Graph Configurations**, Stephen Lucas and Laura Taalman; *Journal of Mathematics and the Arts,* Special Issue on Mathematical Illustration, Vol. 16, Issue 1-2, pp. 121-132, 2022. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Graphs are typically represented in published research literature as two-dimensional images, for obvious reasons. With the increased accessibility of 3D rendering software and 3D printing hardware, we can now represent graphs in three dimensions more easily. Years of published work in the field have led to certain ‘standard’ two-dimensional configurations of well-known graphs such as the Petersen graph or K6, but there is no such standard for illustrations of graphs in three-dimensional space. Ideally, a spatial graph configuration should highlight the primary properties and features of the graph, as well as be aesthetically pleasing to view. In this paper, we will suggest and realize standard ideal spatial configurations for a variety of well-known graphs and families of graphs. These configurations can help provide fresh three-dimensional intuition about certain families of graphs, in particular the relationships between graphs in the Y-Delta Petersen family.

**Categorizing Celtic Knot Designs**, Roger Antonsen and Laura Taalman; *Proceedings of Bridges Aalto: Mathematics, Art, Music, Architecture, Culture,* p. 87–94, 2021. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

In this paper we investigate and enumerate classes of rectangular Celtic knot designs. We introduce criteria for reducing, filtering, and categorizing such designs in order to obtain pleasing, Celtic-looking patterns. We use Hamming graphs to manage large collections of related designs, begin to uncover relationships between Celtic designs, and attempt to identify mathematically and aesthetically significant characteristics of designs.

**Modeling Dynamical Systems for 3D Printing**, Stephen Lucas, Evelyn Sander, and Laura Taalman; *Notices of the American Mathematical Society,* Vol. 67, No.11, p. 1692-1705, 2020; and *The Best Writing in Mathematics,* 2021. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

In many cases, it is possible to use a black box differential equations solver to create printable models of dynamical systems such as chaotic attractors. However, sometimes a black box method is inadequate. We have therefore developed a mixed curvature method to make 3D printing possible in these cases. This mixed curvature methoduses a combination of Matlab and the cost-free software OpenSCAD, designed specifically for 3D mesh export. We mostly restrict our discussion to solutions of differential equations, but we end with an extention to the context of more general dynamical structures for iterated maps and ordinary and partial differential equations.

**Wallpaper Patterns for Lattice Designs**, Laura Taalman and Carolyn Yackel; *Proceedings of Bridges 2020: Mathematics, Art, Music, Education, Culture,* pages 223-230, 2020. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Mathematicians have established that there are exactly seventeen plane symmetry groups, known as “wallpaper patterns.” Multiple mathematical fiber arts papers describe subsets of those patterns that are suitable for textile design with grid-based media such as knitting and cross-stitch. This paper extends the existing library of these patterns to include orientation-based variations and four-fold rotations. In particular we enumerate all plane lattice symmetries that can be generated from square tiles using lattice translations and combinations of other lattice symmetries. This work has application beyond mathematics as we also provide a useful patterning tool for knitting and fiber arts designers; we introduce Symmetry Generator software created using Python/Processing and OpenSCAD which provides a method for exporting plane lattice symmetry designs as hand knitting patterns or as physical punch cards for use in knitting machines.

**Optimizing Morton’s Tritangentless Knots for Rolling**, Stephen Lucas, Laura Taalman, and student Abigail Eget; *Proceedings of Bridges 2020: Mathematics, Art, Music, Education, Culture,* pages 367-370, 2020. **PDF**

## Abstract

Tritangentless knots have a curious and beautiful property: when realized as physical 3D printed models, they roll. Some tritangentless parameterizations roll more easily and freely than others. In this paper we numerically optimize parameters to obtain the most “aesthetically pleasing” rolling knots and then create physical models of these knots using 3D printing, thereby leveraging mathematical tools to obtain an elegant kinetic sculpture.

**Opportunity Costs in the Game of Best Choice**, Brant Jones, Laura Taalman, and students Crews, Myers, Urbanski, and Wilson; *Electronic Journal of Combinatorics,* Volume 26, Issue #1, 2019. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

The game of best choice is a model for sequential decision making with many variations in the literature. Notably, the classical setup assumes that the sequence of candidate rankings are uniformly distributed in time and that there is no expense associated with conducting the candidate interviews. Here, we weight each ranking permutation according to the position of the best candidate in order to model costs incurred from interviews for candidates that are ultimately not hired. We compare our weighted model with the classical model via a limiting process. It turns out that imposing even infinitesimal costs on the interviews results in a probability of success that is about 28%, as opposed to 1/e ≈ 37% in the classical case.

**Sequences of Spiral Knot Determinants**, Laura Taalman and students Charlie Kim and Ryan Stees; *Journal of Integer Sequences,* Vol. 19, Issue #1, 2016. **PDF** / **MathSciNet** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Spiral knots are a generalization of the well-known class of torus knots indexed by strand number and base word repetition. By fixing the strand number and varying the repetition index we obtain integer sequences of spiral knot determinants. In this paper we examine such sequences for spiral knots of up to four strands using a new periodic crossing matrix method. Surprisingly, the resulting sequences vary widely in character and, even more surprisingly, nearly every one of them is a known integer sequence in the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. We also develop a general form for these sequences in terms of recurrence relations that exhibits a pattern which is potentially generalizable to all spiral knots.

**Nest Graphs and Minimal Complete Symmetry Groups for Magic Sudoku Variants**, Beth Arnold, Rebecca Field, John Lorch, Stephen Lucas, and Laura Taalman; *Rocky Mountain J. Math,* Vol. 45, no.3, 2015. **PDF** / **MathSciNet** / **Citations**

## Abstract

We identify modular-magic Sudoku boards that can serve as representatives for equivalence classes defined from the modular-magic physical symmetries. This will allow us to identify a restricted set of relabeling symmetries that, together with the physical symmetries, forms a minimal complete modular-magic Sudoku symmetry group. We conclude with a simple computation that proves the non-obvious fact that the full Sudoku symmetry group is, in fact, already minimal and complete.

**Heartless Poker**, Dominic Lanphier and Laura Taalman; *MOVES: Research in Recreational Math,* Princeton University Press, 2015. **PDF**

## Abstract

The probabilities, and hence the rankings, of the standard poker hands are well-known. We study what happens to the rankings in a game where a deck is used with a suit missing, or with an extra suit, or extra face cards. In particular, does it ever happen that two or more hands will be equally likely? In this paper we examine this and other questions, and show how probability, some analysis, and even number theory can be applied.

**Solitaire Mancala Games and the Chinese Remainder Theorem**, Brant Jones, Laura Taalman, and Anthony Tongen; *American Mathematical Monthly,* Vol. 120, No. 8, 2013. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Mancala is a generic name for a family of sowing games that are popular all over the world. There are many two-player mancala games in which a player may move again if their move ends in their own store. In this work, we study a simple solitaire mancala game called Tchoukaillon that facilitates the analysis of “sweep” moves, in which all of the stones on a portion of the board can be collected into the store. We include a self-contained account of prior research on Tchoukaillon, as well as a new description of all winning Tchoukaillon boards with a given length. We also prove an analogue of the Chinese Remainder Theorem for Tchoukaillon boards, and give an algorithm to reconstruct a complete winning Tchoukaillon board from partial information. Finally, we propose a graph-theoretic generalization of Tchoukaillon for further study.

**Mancala Matrices**, Laura Taalman, Anthony Tongen, and students Warren, Wyrick-Flax, and Yoon; *College Math Journal,* Vol. 44, No. 4, September 2013. **PDF** / **MathSciNet** / **Citations**

## Abstract

We introduce a new matrix tool for the sowing game Tchoukaillon that enables us to non-iteratively construct an explicit bijection between board vectors and move vectors. This allows us to provide much simpler proofs than currently appear in the literature for two key theorems, as well as a non-iterative method for constructing move vectors. We also explore extensions of our results to Tchoukaillon variants that involve wrapping and chaining.

**Minimal Complete Shidoku Symmetry Groups**, Beth Arnold, Rebecca Field, Stephen Lucas, and Laura Taalman; *Journal of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computing,* Vol. 87, Nov. 2013. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Calculations of the number of equivalence classes of Sudoku boards has to this point been done only with the aid of a computer, in part because of the unnecessarily large symmetry group used to form the classes. In particular, the relationship between relabeling symmetries and positional symmetries such as row/column swaps is complicated. In this paper we focus first on the smaller Shidoku case and show first by computation and then by using connectivity properties of simple graphs that the usual symmetry group can in fact be reduced to various minimal subgroups that induce the same action. This is the first step in finding a similar reduction in the larger Sudoku case and for other variants of Sudoku.

**Spiral Knots**, Laura Taalman, Len Van Wyk, and students Brothers, Evans, Witczak, and Yarnall; *Missouri Journal of Mathematical Sciences,* Vol. 22, Issue #1, 2010. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Spiral knots are a generalization of torus knots we define by a certain periodic closed braid representation. For spiral knots with prime power period, we calculate their genus, bound their crossing number, and bound their m-alternating excess.

**Grobner basis representations of Sudoku**, Beth Arnold, Stephen Lucas, and Laura Taalman; *College Math Journal,* Vol. 41, No. 2, March 2010. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

This paper uses Gröbner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Gröbner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the constraints. Gröbner basis representations can be used to find puzzle solutions or count numbers of boards.

**p-Coloring classes of torus knots**, Laura Taalman and students Anna-Lisa Breiland and Layla Oesper; *Missouri Journal of Mathematical Sciences,* Vol. 21, Issue #2, 2009. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

We classify by elementary methods the p-colorability of torus knots, and prove that every p-colorable torus knot has exactly one nontrivial p-coloring class. As a consequence, we note that the two-fold branched cyclic cover of a torus knot complement has cyclic first homology group.

**An exact sequence of weighted Nash complexes**, Laura Taalman; *Illinois Journal of Mathematics,* Volume 52, Number 2, Summer 2008. **PDF** / **MathSciNet** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Given a three-dimensional complex algebraic variety with isolated singular point and a sufficiently fine complete resolution of the singularity, we construct an exact sequence of weighted Nash complexes. We use genericity and a theorem from Hironaka to make a careful choice of transverse hyperplane that will define the maps of our exact sequence, and use the properties of the monomial generators of the Nash sheaf to construct a local basis for a certain sheaf of logarithmic 1-forms.

**Counting m-coloring classes of knots and links**, Laura Taalman and students Kathryn Brownell and Kaitlyn O’Neil; *Pi Mu Epsilon Journal,* Volume 12, Number 5, Fall 2006. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Two Fox m-colorings of a knot or link K are said to be equivalent if they differ only by a permutation of colors. The set of equivalence classes of m-colorings under this relation is the set Cm(K) of Fox m-coloring classes of K. We develop a combinatorical formula for |Cm(K)| for any knot or link K that depends only on the m-nullity of K. As a practical application, we determine the m-nullity, and therefore the value of |Cm(P(p,q,r))|, for any any (p, q, r) pretzel link P(p,q,r).

**The Nash sheaf of a complete resolution**, Laura Taalman; *Manuscripta Mathematica,* 106, no. 2, 249-270, 2001. **PDF** / **MathSciNet** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Every three-dimensional complex algebraic variety with isolated singular point has a resolution factoring through the Nash blowup and the blowup of the maximal ideal over which the second Fitting ideal sheaf is locally principal. In such resolutions one can construct Hsiang-Pati coordinates and thus obtain generators for the Nash sheaf that are the differentials of monomial functions. The results here provide a generalization of the results of Pardon and Stern to the three-dimensional case, as well as a more conceptual view of Pati’s three-dimensional results.

**Monomial generators for the Nash sheaf of a complete resolution**, Laura Taalman; *Duke University,* Ph.D. Thesis, 2000. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

Given a complex algebraic 3-dimensional variety with isolated singular point, we show that there exists a resolution over which the generators of the Nash sheaf can be written locally as the differentials of certain monomial functions. The exponents of these monomials define a sequence of three divisors (the “resolution data”) supported on the exceptional divisor of the resolution. Using these divisors we construct an exact sequence that relates the Nash sheaf to the resolution data. As an application, we use this exact sequence to calculate certain Chern classes of the Nash sheaf, and thus Mather-Chern classes of the variety.

### Articles

**Hitting the Wall**, Laura Taalman; *Living Proof: Stories of Resilience Along the Mathematical Journey,* American Mathematical Society 2019; and *Math Horizons*, Vol.27, Issue 3, 2020; and *AMS Notices*, August 2020. **PDF**

## Excerpt

Math was easy for me, until suddenly it wasn’t. I suspect this is a transition that many people go through, some having a difficult time in high school and others hitting the wall in graduate school when they have to start doing serious work to succeed. I think sometimes people who hit that wall too late in their journey have trouble dealing with it because they never had to develop the necessary study habits and capacity for successfully handling “being stuck’’ without giving up. I was fortunate in that I hit this wall the minute I went to college and was somehow able to handle transitioning from the high school kid who was best at math to the dumbest, least-prepared kid in her calculus class…

**Modeling Dynamical Systems for 3D Printing**, Stephen Lucas, Evelyn Sander, and Laura Taalman; *Notices of the American Mathematical Society,* Vol. 67, No.11, p. 1692-1705, 2020; and *The Best Writing in Mathematics,* 2021. **PDF** / **Citations**

## Abstract

In many cases, it is possible to use a black box differential equations solver to create printable models of dynamical systems such as chaotic attractors. However, sometimes a black box method is inadequate. We have therefore developed a mixed curvature method to make 3D printing possible in these cases. This mixed curvature methoduses a combination of Matlab and the cost-free software OpenSCAD, designed specifically for 3D mesh export. We mostly restrict our discussion to solutions of differential equations, but we end with an extention to the context of more general dynamical structures for iterated maps and ordinary and partial differential equations.

**Parametric OpenSCAD Designs for Exploring Sierpinski-Like Carpet Fractals and Infinite Geometric Series**

Laura Taalman

*Construct3D*, Conference Proceedings, October 2018

**Full Text PDF**

Abstract: Traditional uses for 3D design and printing often center around the creation of useful printed objects that serve as prototypes or final products intended for solving physical real-world problems. In this application of 3D design we are focused instead on the understanding of abstract mathematical concepts through design creation and exploration. In this paper we will introduce a specific parametric model that can be used in a mathematical liberal arts course to introduce high-level mathematical concepts such as fractals and infinite series to students with limited mathematical backgrounds.

**Book Reviews: Visualizing Mathematics with 3D Printing… and Pasta by Design**

Laura Taalman

*The American Mathematical Monthly*, Volume 125, Issue 4, March 2018

Full Text PDF

Excerpt: In Hype Cycle terminology, three-dimensional printing is now past the “Peak of Inflated Expectations,” where those new to the concept imagine that 3D printers are magical replicating microwaves that produce just about anything you want, quickly and easily, with the push of a button. Most of us in the mathematical community are already aware that 3D printing is not so fast, easy, or capable. Designing mathematical files for 3D printing can be difficult, frustrating, and full of dead ends. In terms of the Hype Cycle, 3D printing is solidly in what is known as the “Trough of Disillusionment” phase. The next step in the Hype Cycle is to try climb the “Slope of Enlightenment.” Part of climbing that slope is being able to see what is possible at the summit, and that is where Henry Segerman’s book comes in…

Get Henry Segerman’s book Visualizing Mathematics with 3D Printing on Amazon

Get George Legendre’s book Pasta by Design on Amazon

**The Mathematics Behind xkcd: A conversation with Randall Munroe**

Laura Taalman

*Math Horizons*, September 2012

Full Text PDF

Description: The creator of the popular web comic xkcd muses about the merits of pen and paper versus computer coding, tic-tac-toe, and where he sits on the scale of intellectual purity. This past April,* Math Horizons* sat down with Randall Munroe, the author of the popular webcomic xkcd, to talk about some of his most mathematical comics. We met at Christopher Newport University, Randall’s alma mater, where he was about to give an invited talk to a packed auditorium of fans.

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**Taking Sudoku Seriously**

Laura Taalman*
Math Horizons*, September 2007

Full Text PDF / Citations

Full Text PDF / Citations

Introduction: You’ve seen them played in coffee shops, on planes, and maybe even in the back of the room during class. These days it seems that everyone is filling in gerechte designs of order 9 with square subregions. But is it math?

**Puzzling Over Sudoku**

Laura Taalman*
Madison Magazine*, September 2007

Full Text PDF

Full Text PDF

Introduction: America has been taken over by little 9 by 9 grids full of numbers. Sudoku puzzles are now a regular feature in almost every newspaper, and bookstores devote entire sections to Sudoku books. But, we’re late to the party; Sudoku has been popular since the ’80s in Japan after its first appearance in print in an American puzzle magazine in 1979.

**Simplicity is Not Simple: Tessellations and Modular Architecture**

Eugenie Hunsicker and Laura Taalman

*Math Horizons*, cover article September 2002

Full Text PDF / Citations

Description: In this article, we’ll introduce you to Gregg Fleishman’s work, modular architecture more generally, and talk about how various architectural considerations can be described in mathematical terms. Along the way, we’ll discuss and prove some basic facts about polyhedra and tessellations.

### Textbooks

**Taalman/Kohn Calculus**

Laura Taalman and Peter Kohn

Freeman/Macmillan, First Edition 2013

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Publisher Notes: Taalman and Kohn’s *Calculus* offers a streamlined, structured exposition of calculus that combines the clarity of classic textbooks with a modern perspective on concepts, skills, applications, and theory. Its sleek, uncluttered design eliminates sidebars, historical biographies, and asides to keep students focused on what’s most important—the foundational concepts of calculus that are so important to their future academic and professional careers.

#### Taalman Calculus with Integrated Precalculus

Laura Taalman

Freeman/Macmillan, First Edition 2013

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Publisher Notes: Taalman’s *Calculus I with Integrated Precalculus* helps students with weak mathematical backgrounds be successful in the calculus sequence, without retaking a precalculus course. Taalman’s innovative text is the only book to interweave calculus with precalculus and algebra in a manner suitable for math and science majors— not a rehashing or just-in-time review of precalculus and algebra, but rather a new approach that uses a calculus-level toolbox to examine the structure and behavior of algebraic and transcendental functions.

**Taalman Integrated Calculus**

Laura Taalman

Houghton Mifflin, First Edition 2004

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Textbook Excellence Award 2006, Text and Academic Authors Association

Publisher Notes: The only text on the market that truly integrates calculus with precalculus and algebra in a two-semester course appropriate for math and science majors, *Integrated Calculus* uses a student-friendly approach without sacrificing rigor. Students learn about logic and proofs early in the text then apply these skills throughout the course to different types of functions.This combined approach allows students to eliminate a pure precalculus course and focus on calculus, with a “point-of-use” presentation of necessary algebra and precalculus concepts.

### Trade Books

**Taking Sudoku Seriously**

Jason Rosenhouse and Laura Taalman

Oxford University Press, 2012

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PROSE Award for Popular Science and Mathematics 2012, Association of American Publishers

MathSciNet Review / Citations

Wall Street Journal Review by Keith Devlin

The Guardian Review by GrrlScientist

Mathematical Association of America Review by Mark Hunacek

Royal Statistical Society Review by Nicola Tilt

Mathematical Gazette Review by David Bevan

Additional reviews by Tanya Khovanova, Mike James, and Michael Lugo

Publisher Notes: Packed with more than a hundred color illustrations and a wide variety of puzzles and brainteasers, *Taking Sudoku Seriously* uses this popular craze as the starting point for a fun-filled introduction to higher mathematics. How many Sudoku solution squares are there? What shapes other than three-by-three blocks can serve as acceptable Sudoku regions? What is the fewest number of starting clues a sound Sudoku puzzle can have? Does solving Sudoku require mathematics? Jason Rosenhouse and Laura Taalman show that answering these questions opens the door to a wealth of interesting mathematics. Indeed, they show that Sudoku puzzles and their variants are a gateway into mathematical thinking generally. A math book and a puzzle book, *Taking Sudoku Seriously* will change the way readers look at Sudoku and mathematics, serving both as an introduction to mathematics for puzzle fans and as an exploration of the intricacies of Sudoku for mathematics buffs.

**Taking Sudoku Seriously**

Jason Rosenhouse and Laura Taalman

Seidosha Press, Japanese Translation 2014

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Publisher notes: Taking the world by storm, enjoying “Sudoku” puzzles thorough research! This book considers a variety of interesting questions for Sudoku fans to mathematicians. “Father of Sudoku,” Kaji MaOkoshi Mr. [Corporation Nikoli President] recommends!! The authors Jason Rosenhouse and Laura Taalman understand the fun of the Sudoku boom, and in this new and interesting this book, analyze Sudoku variations from the side of mathematical research. All color. Includes over 90 original puzzles.

**Taking Sudoku Seriously**

Jason Rosenhouse and Laura Taalman

Machinery Industry Press, Chinese Translation 2014

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Publisher notes: Through more than one hundred color pictures and a wealth of Sudoku, Magic Square and Sudoku Variation puzzles, this book explores higher mathematical research around the great game of Sudoku, the world’s most popular pencil puzzle. This is a math book, while at the same time, a fun puzzle book. How many Sudoku grids are there in total? How many initial clues are required for a unique solution? The authors demonstrate the fact that by answering these questions, you can open a door to a rich and interesting world of mathematics.

### Puzzle Books

**Rainbow Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2016

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Publisher Notes: Who said sudoku have to be black and white? These 180 multihued puzzles come in a rainbow of glorious colors and patterns that enhance the fun. Although they begin with the standard 9×9 grid and follow the basic rules, each sudoku offers a fresh twist to tradition: perhaps every red square must contain a different number, or a puzzle may look like a jigsaw. It’s the perfect collection for solvers who enjoy a challenge that’s way out of the ordinary.

**Ninecraft Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2016

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Publisher Notes: These puzzles are *not* dressed to the “9’s”! That’s because not one of these sudoku contains the number 9 as a given, so solvers must do some mining to discover where they belong. Pixel-y, nerdy, creative, and challenging, *Ninecraft Sudoku* features nearly 190 puzzles that get harder as you go along, and includes some grids with givens that are in shapes seen in mining games.

**Fifty Squares of Grey**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2014

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Publisher Notes: Whips, handcuffs . . . sudoku? When you’re in the mood for some masochistic pleasure, this variant of the popular puzzle will satisfy your desires. Each 10×10 grid is divided into ten regions of 5×2. Play like regular sudoku, except using numbers 0-9. Then comes the twist: each sudoku also has five 10-square grey regions to complete—a total of 50 squares of grey.

**Double Trouble Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2014

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Publisher Notes: This brand-new sudoku variant will have logic lovers seeing double! Instead of appearing only once in every row and column, each number appears TWICE. And instead of the usual three-by-three areas, these puzzles have irregular shapes. These twists add spice to the solving, variety to the sudoku, and make every puzzle a unique challenge for your eyes and mind.

**Beyond Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2012

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Publisher Notes: Ready to take your sudoku skills to the next level? *Beyond Sudoku* features more than 150 ingenious puzzles with extra regions indicated by colored squares or colored dotted lines. The play of patterns and colors makes each grid a unique work of art, and there’s only one new rule: no numbers may repeat in the extra regions. But that simple rule takes you *Beyond Sudoku* to a new world of challenges and fun!

**No-Frills Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2011

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Publisher Notes: Unlike many sudoku, where a third of the squares are filled in, each of these puzzles has only 18 givens (completed squares). That means fans enjoy more of a challenge. All the puzzles are expertly crafted to satisfy both casual solvers on a break and sudoku die-hards relaxing on a Sunday afternoon.

**Naked Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Puzzlewright Press, 2009

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Publisher Notes: All the starting numbers have been stripped away, leaving you with something truly intriguing: *Naked Sudoku*. Each puzzle is a variation on regular sudoku, but there are no starting numbers to help. Instead, you must use other types of clues to determine where to begin. In one variant, for instance, greater-than and less-than signs point out the way. These are sudoku puzzles that will push your brain to the limit and expose your true sudoku talent.

**Color Sudoku**

Philip Riley and Laura Taalman, Brainfreeze Puzzles

Sterling Publishing, 2007

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Publisher Notes: Sudoku fans will welcome this bright new twist to the popular puzzles! Every one of these ingenious creations—from “Bold X” to “Rainbow Up”—makes colors and patterns part of the solving fun. And although each puzzle maintains the normal 9×9 grid and follows the basic rules of the game, every style adds an additional restriction to intensify the challenge. In “Worms,” for example, swirly, squirmy shapes fill the grids; the numbers increase as you work your way from head to tail. “Even/Odd” features squares in two colors, depending on whether the number to fill it is even or odd. And in “Positional Board,” no two of the red squares can be the same number. They’re all lots of fun!